المؤتمر السنوي للسلم والأمن بإفريقيا : الامن الافريقي في زمن الارتيابات ـ اليوم الثاني - APSACO

July 21, 2022

كانت سنة 2021 سنة اضطراب جيو-سياسي وانقلاب جيو-اقتصادي عالميين. ومع تزايد زخم الأحداث، دخل العالم فترة تحول جيو-سياسي وجيو-اقتصادي تعلن نهاية دورة تاريخية وتُنبِّؤ بآفاق غير مؤكدة لدورة جديدة. وعليه، فإننا من الآن فصاعداً أمام تغير عالمي حقيقي ينطوي على نقاط ضغط متعددة وقوىً دافعة جيو-سياسية واقتصادية ومناخية وتكنولوجية وأمنية وصحية.

ومن المرجح أن تتأثر القارة الإفريقية بدرجات متفاوتة، حيث إنها اتبعت على مر العقدين الماضيين عملية تنويع في الشراكات الاقتصادية والسياسية والعسكرية على مستوى الدولة والمؤسسات، سواء على الصعيدين القاري أو الإقليمي. والحال أن الأوضاع الاقتصادية العالمية إلى جانب التحديات البنيوية لإفريقيا يفاقمان من التوجهات الأساسية ذات النتائج الجيو-سياسية الحتمية، وتتجلى أولها في أن الحرب في أوكرانيا قد اندلعت في وقت يشهد فيه المشهد الجيو-سياسي العالمي توترات بين الصين والولايات المتحدة وصعوبات في تحديد نقاط قوى النظام العالمي الجديد. وبالتالي، فإنها أصبحت جزءاً في دينامية مترسخة بالفعل يدفعها منطق الحل الأمثل (الحد الأدنى من التكاليف مقابل الحد الأقصى من المنافع). أما ثانيها فيتمثل في كون الأمن الغذائي الإفريقي معرضاً للخطر، فالقدرة على تأمين الوصول للغذاء الكافي قد تأثرت بشدة جراء توالي النزاعات والكوارث الطبيعية والأوبئة. علاوة على ذلك، يفاقم تغير المناخ مخاطر اندلاع النزاعات في العديد من المناطق من خلال الزيادة من حدة العوامل الاجتماعية والاقتصادية والبيئية القائمة. وتعد ساكنة هذه المناطق من بين أكثر السكان عرضة للأزمة المناخية وأكثرها تعرضاً للتهميش من قبل العمل المناخي. وأخيراً، يُعتبر الضعف المؤسساتي وعدم الاستقرار في العديد من الدول من أهم العقبات التي تقف أمام مكافحة العنف والفقر. ويعد التغلب على هذه الهشاشة، في بُعدَيها الاقتصادي والبيئي، من الأولويات الحيوية بالنسبة لإفريقيا.

وتستدعي الحالة القائمة طرح بعض التساؤلات المهمة:

ما هي تبعات الحرب على الدول الإفريقية من ناحية الصراعات المتعلقة ببسط النفوذ على القارة، وكذلك الإكراهات الاقتصادية والعسكرية-الأمنية والديبلوماسية؟ ما هي الاستراتيجيات الإيجابية والمتعلقة بالقدرة على الصمود، الفردية والجماعية، التي يتعين على الدول الإفريقية اتباعها في مواجهة هذا الوضع؟ ما هي التداعيات على انعدام الأمن الغذائي في إفريقيا؟ كيف يمكن تحسين الأمن الغذائي في إفريقيا؟ ما هي التحديات التي ينطوي عليها تغير المناخ بالنسبة لإفريقيا؟ ما هي خصائص الدول الإفريقية الهشة؟ كيف يمكن تحقيق استدامة تقوية الدول في سياقات ما بعد النزاع؟

Speakers
Younes Abouyoub
Morocco, Usa
Director, Governance and State-Building (MENA Region), United Nations
Younes Abouyoub is a senior United Nations official with a long experience in conflict resolution, peacebuilding, governance, and sustainable development. He previously worked as the Director of the political office of the UN Under-Secretary General for Conflict Prevention; Senior political advisor to the UN Secretary General Special Envoy to Burundi. He directed the political office of the UN Secretary General Special Envoy to Yemen and acted as his Senior special advisor. Among several other positions with the United Nations, Mr Abouyoub was also the senior political officer in charge of the regional affairs in the UN political mission to Libya (UNSMIL), and Senior Regional Expert in the Un Security Council Panel of Experts on Sudan (Darfur). He has also worked in different ...
Yonas Adeye Adeto
Ethiopia
Commissioner, the Ethiopian National Dialogue Commission
Associate Professor of Peace Studies, Former Director, Institute for Peace and Security Studies (IPSS), Addis Ababa University (AAU); Current Commissioner, the Ethiopian National Dialogue Commission (ENDC). He has published peer reviewed articles in international journals, and edited book chapters on: Peacebuilding, Conflict Resolution, Security Sector Governance, Peace Education, Preventing Violent Extremism/Terrorism, Diplomacy, International Relations and Global as well as Regional Security. He has taught at Addis Ababa University over twenty-five years and is currently offering various courses related to theories, issues and praxis of Peace, Global and Regional Security to MA and PhD programmes at IPSS and elsewhere in Africa and beyond. Dr. Adeto holds a PhD in Peace Stud ...
Fatma Ahmed
Sweden
Capacity Building Specialist, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
As the Capacity Building Specialist at the UNDP Regional Programme for Africa, Fatma Ahmed supports the African Union on conflict prevention and peacebuilding. For over 9 years, she has worked across Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia, focusing on stabilization, early recovery initiatives, countering and preventing violent extremism and conflict prevention. Fatma formerly acted as the Deputy Chief of Party during the establishment and setting up of the IGAD Center of Excellence in Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism in the Horn and East Africa region. ...
Nezha Alaoui M’hammdi
Morocco
Senior Fellow
Mrs. Nezha Alaoui M’Hammdi is Senior Fellow at Policy Center for the New South (since 2020) and the current Ambassador of His Majesty the King of Morocco to Ethiopia and Djibouti since 2016. She has served as first Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Morocco after its return to the African Union by 2017, and to the Peace and Security Council of the AU (April 2018). She is currently Dean of the Council of Arab League Ambassadors to Ethiopia She also served from 2013 to 2016 as an Ambassador of Morocco to Ghana, Togo and Benin, being the first Moroccan female Ambassador of the Kingdom of Morocco in Africa. After joining the Moroccan Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Morocco in 1989, Mrs. Nezha Alaoui M’Hammdi served mainly in Italy and Ghana. During her assignment, from 2 ...
Mohamed Ait Kadi
Morocco
President, General Council of Agricultural Development
Pr. Mohamed Ait-Kadi is currently President of the General Council of Agricultural Development. The Council is a high-level policy think tank of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishery, Rural Development and Forestry in Morocco where he has also served as Secretary General and Director General of the Irrigation Department. He is President of the Scientific Committee of the Foundation AAA (Adaptation of African Agriculture to climate change) Mohamed is a member of the Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology and Professor at the Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II. He is also a member of the Academy of Agriculture of France, Oslo International Water Academy and the International Advisory Panel of the Bioeconomy World Summit.. ...
Abdelhak Bassou
Senior Fellow
Abdelhak Bassou is Senior Fellow at the Policy Center for the New South, Member of its Editorial & Research Oversight Steering Committee, and Affiliate Professor at the Faculty of Governance, Economic and Social Sciences (FGSES) of the Mohammed VI Polytechnic University (UM6P).   Specializing in security, strategy and defense studies, he previously occupied several offices within the Directorate General of the Moroccan National Security where he was Borders’ Division Chief from 1978 to 1993. He was appointed Director of the Royal Institute of Police in 1998, before serving as the Chief of Regional Security in Errachidia from 1999 to 2003, and Sidi Kacem from 2003 to 2005. In 2006, he became Head of the Central General Intelligence until 2009. Bassou contributed to the o ...
Lassina Diarra
Ivory Coast
Researcher and Consultant, Centre for Strategies and Security for the Sahel Sahara
Lassina Diarra has a degree in political science. He is a teacher-researcher at the University Institute of Abidjan and at the École nationale supérieure des armées du Bénin. Lassina is currently a researcher at Timbuktu Institute in Dakar. His research focuses on security and defense issues in West Africa, particularly terrorism and violent extremism in the West African region. He is the author of several books including ECOWAS face to transnational terrorism mechanisms and strategies of fight Ed. L'Harmattan and scientific articles: Facing Terrorism Radicalization and perception of the terrorist threat in the extreme north of Côte d'Ivoire: the case of Bounkani.  ...
Karim El Aynaoui
Executive President
Executive President of the Policy Center for the New South; Executive Vice-President of the Mohammed VI Polytechnic University and Dean of its Social Sciences, Economics and Humanities Cluster.   Karim El Aynaoui is an Economist. From 2005 to 2012, he worked at the Central Bank of Morocco where he held the position of Director of Economics, Statistics and International Relations. At the Central Bank of Morocco, he was in charge of the Research Department and equally a member of the Governor’s Cabinet. Previously, he worked for eight years at the World Bank as an Economist for its regional units of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) as well as Africa.   Karim El Aynaoui has published books and journal articles on macroeconomic issues in developing countries. His rece ...
Badreddine El Harti
Libya
Chief, Ceasefire Monitoring Component, United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL)
Mr. Badreddine El harti is currently the Chief of the Ceasefire Monitoring Component for the United Nations Support Mission in Libya, previously he was the UN Special Adviser to the President of Burkina Faso for national security (2017-2021) and the Deputy Chief of policy at the UN Secretariat in New York (2011-2015). He has served and supported UN engagement in mediation, human security, Security Sector Governance, Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration and Protection of Civilians in Haiti, Central African Republic, Libya, Yemen and Syria., He has also held senior responsibilities with the Moroccan defense institution as Chief of research and of the training & equipment divisions. Badreddine holds a PhD in “Cross cultural Communication”, Med V University, R ...
Serge Daniel Gbogbohoundada
Benin, France
Journalist and Writer
Journalist-writer of Franco-Beninese nationality, Serge Daniel Gbogbohoundada is a graduate of the Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Lille (France). He is the winner of the Norbert Zongo Prize for the best investigative journalist of the continent (2019) and Chevalier de l'ordre des Arts et de la Culture in France. He is also the author of four reference books on the Sahel and the former Ivorian rebellion ...
Nchimunya Hamukoma
South Africa
Head: Funder Partnerships & Strategic Projects, Harambee Youth Employment Accelerator
Nchimunya Hamukoma is the Head: Funder Partnerships & Strategic Projects Harambee Youth Employment Accelerator, a South African based youth employment organization serving 2.5 million young people through their online mobile platform SAYouth.In her role she is responsible for driving and incubating new priority sectors within the organization  such as Micro- enterprise  and Agriculture and  working with funder partners to co-create impactful grant programs. She is an economist & policy strategist passionate about optimizing the conditions for human thriving. Her work focuses on understanding the building blocks of Africa's future and helping governments and organizations solve complex problems. During Covid-19 she worked with organizations to forecast the trajectory of ...
Eniola Mafe
Nigeria
Founder/ Principal, EMA Advisory and Lead for 2030Vision Initiative
Eniola Mafe is a strategist and international development leader with a track record of over 15 years in facilitating high-level engagement, frameworks for systemic change, program implementation and effective strategy for sustainable development in developing countries. She is the Founder and Principal at Eniola Mafe Advisory focused on helping those who think differently and those who want to think differently about development and social impact. Eniola led the growth and development of 2030 Vision Initiative, focused on harnessing 4IR technologies to accelerate progress on the Sustainable Development Goals within the next decade. In partnership with UNDP, Arm and more than 20 top technology companies, this platform provides a focal point to mobilize more concerted and coope ...
Hamza Rkha Chaham
Morocco
Co-founder and Managing Director, SOWIT
Hamza is the co-founder of SOWIT, a start-up providing decision support systems to African farmers. He is a 2018 Marshall German Fund and Policy Center for the New South Emerging Leader. SOWIT is incorporated in France, Morocco and Senegal and leverages all the power of remote-sensing, AI and agronomy to provide key insights to farmers enabling them to optimize crucial operations such as fertilization or harvest. Hamza is co-author of the landmark report published by the African Union entitled “Drones on the horizon: Transforming Africa’s Agriculture”. The report forms the basis upon which the AU Executive Council issued the Decision  EX. CL/Dec. 986-1007 (XXXII), recommending all Member States harness the opportunities offered by drones for precision agriculture. ...
David Michael Terungwa
Nigeria
Founder, Global Initiative for Food Security and Ecosystem Preservation
Michael Terungwa David is an Atlantic Dialogues Emerging leader and the founder GIFSEP- Global Initiative for Food Security and Ecosystem Preservation based in Nigeria. He is the Africa Regional Coordinator for Citizens Climate International and also an Executive Board member of NGO Committee on Sustainable Development- NY. David is a PhD candidate in Environmental Management, a Master’s degree in Environmental Planning and Projection, a degree in Agricultural Engineering with a specialization in Soil and Water Management and a post graduate certificate in Renewable energy. David is the author of a book: Understanding Climate Change- A guide for Secondary Schools in Nigeria. His notable initiatives include: Trees and Gardens for all, School for Internally Displaced Persons Ca ...
Rama Yade
Senegal, France
Senior Director, Atlantic Council Africa Center
Ambassador Rama Yade is director of the Atlantic Council’s Africa Center and senior fellow for the Europe Center. She is also Professor at Mohammed VI Polytechnic University in Morocco and at Sciences Po Paris. She is a Senegalese and French citizen. Prior to joining the Council, she was a consultant for the World Bank, advising the institution on education, youth, sports, human capital, and disability issues in Africa. She also has strong experience in the private sector as an editor in London, where she overviewed a collection of books about African millennials, and as director for development at a French consulting firm in corporate and social responsibility. Ambassador Yade has over a decade of experience working in French, European, and international politics. At th ...
Fadel Sereme
Burkina Faso
Specialist in organizational engineering and planning & Expert in marketing management and conflict management
Fadel Sereme is a specialist in organizational engineering and planning; an expert in marketing management and conflict management. He graduated from the University of Ouagadougou and the African Institute of Management in law and international business. Young and experienced, he has several strings to his bow. Indeed, he has held positions in the public administration, in political bodies and associations, as well as in the private sector. Currently a politician and businessman in Burkina Faso, Mr. Sereme began his professional career in the private sector as head of studies, planning and training of I2E consulting from 2012 to 2017. Then, he occupied the position of commercial manager of COGEFA / ex OBOUF group one of the largest distribution companies in Burkina Faso. Bel ...
Sâ Benjamin Traoré
Burkina Faso
Professor of Law, Faculty of Governance, Economics and Social Sciences, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University (FGSES-UM6P)
Professor Traoré holds a Doctorate in Law from the University of Neuchâtel (Switzerland), an LLM in International Law from the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights and a Master in Public Law from the University from Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Prior to joining UM6P, Prof Traoré worked as the Project Manager for the African Coalition for Corporate Accountability (ACCA). His work and research focused on the role of law in regulating business-related human rights and environmental impacts in Africa, traditional fields of international law and international relations, peace and security in Africa, human rights, international humanitarian law as well as the law related to refugees and internally displaced persons. He has published many academic articles ...
Gilles Yabi
Benin
Founder and Executive Director, WATHI
Gilles Olakounlé Yabi is the founder and CEO of WATHI, the West Africa Citizen Think Tank launched in 2015. WATHI is a unique participative and multidisciplinary citizen-focused think tank on West African issues (www.wathi.org). Gilles Yabi worked as senior political analyst and later as West Africa Project Director of the International Crisis Group, a think tank dedicated to conflict prevention and resolution. He led the research, policy, advocacy and media work of Crisis Group in West Africa and worked particularly on the political crises and conflicts in Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali and Nigeria. Holding a Ph.D in Development economics from the University of Clermont-Ferrand in France, Gilles Yabi also worked as a journalist for the weekly magazine Jeune Afriqu ...

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