Emerging market and developing economies: Engine of the global economic growth despite some vulnerabilities
After a long spell of slow growth post-crisis, the global economy’s recovery was mainly supported by the improvement of emerging markets and developing economies growth. However, this recovery is subject to wide-ranging uncertainties and is now in some danger. According to the IMF, the global economic growth is expected to fall to 3 % in 2019, the lowest level since 2008. This slowdown is estimated to be widespread, concerning both advanced economies as well as emerging markets and developing economies with an expected recovery starting from 2020.
Across Africa, many rural communities still depend on manual and animal power for their farm needs, whether it is for production, harvesting or postharvest activities. In fact, in sub-Saharan Africa, engine power represents a meagre 10 per cent of all energy used on farms, compared to 50 per cent in developing regions.
Without access to mechanised tools and technologies, farming is a tough, laborious and time-consuming process. Farmers are often left with small harvests, low incomes, and poor food and nutrition security. Those who do have access to energy are often reliant on unsustainable sources such as fuelwood, charcoal or farm residues, which exacerbate air pollution and deforestation.
La présence de la France au Sahel n’est pas un sujet facile à discuter, à commenter ou à traiter. D’une part, l’intervention française, en 2013, (Opération Serval), avait permis de prolonger l’existence de l’Etat malien qui, sans l’opération française, n’aurait pas pu résister aux menées terroristes qui visaient Bamako.
D’autre part, la présence française semble ne rien pouvoir changer à l’avancée du terrorisme dans la région, le phénomène semble même gagner du terrain devant l’impuissance de la force française.
Following the global financial crisis of 2007-08, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) went through a period of self-examination. The old joke that its acronym stood for “It’s Mostly Fiscal” bothered some of its leaders, who believed the organization needed to focus less on austerity and more thoroughly consider issues such as inequality, poverty reduction and gender equality when making loans and other key decisions. There was talk of a “new IMF” that had learned from its old mistakes.
During the past few years, the different global ongoing events have left us baffled and astonished. Given the decreasing ability to understand and assimilate the amount of changes, mutations, and crises, one would wonder: what happened to the global order? How has -in this short period of time- the power of its values and institutions that much decreased? What are the causes for these protectionist and massive populist waves? Why are we witnessing an increasing settlement of conflicts out of the international institutions?
Beyond the verbal anarchy celebrated by President Donald Trump, or the annihilation of abandoned Kurdish allies of the United States, the never ending destruction of Yemen, the threatening warfare against Iran, a massacre by Iraqi forces to intimidate protesters against a failing government, more gas and ammunition fired in Hong Kong to oppress untamable activist fearing their loss of freedom, Britain crashing out of the European Union, abandoning common sense and democratic dignity… Yes, beyond these headlines, another drama is slowly placing its news onto the front pages—the civil war in Colombia. Three years after the signature of a celebrated Nobel prize honored peace treaty. A historic battle, half a century in the making, killing between 1958 and 2013, 220 000 people, more than five million civilians were forced from their homes (1985 to 2012) generating the world’s second largest population of internally displaced persons, among them 2.3 million children. And 45 000 kids paid for the insanity with their lives.
Le rêve d’un monde en développement qui voit ses inégalités se réduire, la condition de vie de ses populations s’améliorer significativement, tout en profitant du bonheur procuré par une population jeune, reste à portée de main.
His name was Heller. Gerhard Heller. For his friends in Paris he was just « Gérard » and not an insulting Fritz, a fridolin, a boche, or a chleuh. Heller was a symbol of power. He was a « Sonderfuehrer » in the « Propagandastaffel », practically a low level lieutenant, but for his French contacts he was the ruler of them all. Heller was the censor for French literature, a kind of Napoleon in Nazi uniform. He decided whether Sartre’s books would be published, or Camus. It was up to him to reject the manuscript or help to allocate the necessary paper. In his four years in the Nazi occupied capital of the defeated and humiliated France, Heller read about 800 manuscripts, among them the Albert Camus classics “The stranger” and “The myth of Sisyphus”.
The effects of new technologies on the ways in which we think, govern, work and socialize are already posing complex problems for decision-makers, citizens and corporates, leading to reactions of rejection that reflect fear or lack of preparation in coping with digital transformations. Due to these changes, the classical patterns shaping our society - be it within the political, economic, or social spheres - have been rapidly altered. With this fast-paced transformation, the general interest - placed at the heart of the social contract - is at stake; therefore, deeply affecting the core relationship between the state and the individuals living within its bounds.
The growth slowdown became evident in late 2017. World GDP at market exchange rates slowed from a seasonally adjusted annual rate of between 4 and 5% in the second half of 2017 to between 1.5% to 2% in the first half of 2019. The slowdown came as a big surprise and led to continuous revisions downwards of growth forecasts as shown yet again by the IMF’s World Economic Outlook issued last week.